Keyhole Clinic


Hydrocephalus by definition is a condition where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulates in the brain.   Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear liquid that looks like water and is produced in the 4 ventricles or cavities of the brain, which are connected by narrow pathways.   This fluid surrounds the brain and spinal cord.  The basic function of the CSF is to act as a shock absorber providing protection to the brain inside the skull. 

In Hydrocephalus, the fluid builds up in the ventricles. It is also commonly referred to as “water in the brain.”  This excess fluid puts pressure on the brain because of increase in size of the ventricles, which can lead to brain tissue damage.

Hydrocephalus is caused by an imbalance between how much cerebrospinal fluid is produced and how much is absorbed into the bloodstream.

The main symptoms of hydrocephalus are

  • headache
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • confusion
  • problems with vision (for example, blurred or double vision).

Adults with hydrocephalus might also experience

  • balance problems
  • poor coordination
  • shuffling when they walk, and
  • urinary incontinence (a loss of control passing urine).
  • People would not necessarily experience all of these symptoms, but they would usually experience more than one of them.

In cases of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), the build-up of CSF can be gradual and the symptoms of hydrocephalus might develop slowly over long periods of time (months and years rather than weeks).

The key test for hydrocephalus is a brain scan. This might be a CT (computerised tomography) scan or an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan. The scan results can show signs of a build-up of CSF and increased pressure in the brain.

There are no effective medicines for hydrocephalus. Most children require surgery. The goal is to lessen the pressure in the brain by providing another pathway for CSF to be drained and absorbed away from the brain.

There are two types of surgery for hydrocephalus:

  • Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt (VP Shunt)
  • Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV)

The key treatment for hydrocephalus is a shunt. A shunt is a thin tube implanted in the brain to drain away the excess CSF to another part of the body (often the abdominal cavity, the space around the bowel) where it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Some children with non-communicating hydrocephalus can have surgery called an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). During an ETV, the surgeon makes an opening in the floor of the ventricle at the base of the brain. The CSF is then no longer blocked inside the ventricle. Now it can flow in and around the brain as it should. This means that the child will not need a shunt, but instead will rely on the opening made by the surgeon during surgery.

Dr. Sudish Karunakaran, Senior Consultant Neurosurgeon, is one of the Best Doctors for Hydrocephalus treatment in Kerala.  He has more than 20 Years of Experience in Complex Spine and Brain Disorders.

Dr. Sudish Karunakaran



Related Articles

Disk Herniation Disk Prolapse Treatment in Kochi
Slipped Disc / Herniated Disc

Slipped Disc is most often the result of a gradual, ageing related wear and tear called disk degeneration It is also known as Herniated Disc or Disc Prolapse Our spinal column is comprised of a series of bones, also called vertebrae, which is...

Read More
Headache Treatment at Edappally, Kochi. Migraine Treatment, Sinusitis, cluster headaches, tension headache, nasal headache, hypertension headache
Headache Treatment

Headache is a very common condition and most of us at various points in our lives have definitely experienced headache For appropriate headache treatment, the doctor needs to confirm the type of the headache a person is suffering with Migraine...

Read More
Keyhole Clinic Edappally

Keyhole Clinic, the state-of-the-art healthcare facility, is situated in the Heart of Kochi at a very prime location (Edappally), We have well-experienced and reputed team of Medical Professionals at our center.

Keyhole Clinic is now NABH Accredited

Keyhole Clinic is now NABH Accredited
National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers
Patient Safety & Quality of Care

Our Vision: Center of Excellence in all specialities aiming to provide Comprehensive & Comfortable Outpatient Healthcare Services

Mission: High Quality Care with a Smile

Quality Policy: To provide state-of-the-art facilities of International Standards to patients in a pleasant ambience